We live in the edge of new era, where everything is controlled by technology. Human kind these days could never be separated from technology, it did help us, make our live simpler and easier. Technology’s sophistication do help us manifest some crazy notion, bring innovation into existence. The invention which help the welfare of humankind, such medical innovation to cure untreated diseases that could only achieved now – these days – thanks to all the scientist and technician.
The benefit of technology not only help the humankind and their welfare, it does help other living things. I’m sure that all of you already known about agricultural technology development of plants breeding. We already seen how the technology could manipulate the genes of plants and make artificial plants that could grow as perfect as organic plants. Developed countries such Japan, America, and some European countries has run this invention – practically in their countries on behalf to outmanoeuvre instability of natural plants which very dependent on climates.
This new invention enable us to grow the plants indoor – of course, we don’t need to be afraid of climate changes would effect our plant’s growth. Not only plants, we also become the witness of how massive technology could be, by the invention of In Vitro Fertilization. Yes, our scientist successfully manifest the idea of baby making outside the womb. Of course this is the dream come true for all the woman that having trouble on having baby. Being witnesses of spectacular invention like these, make us wonder does technology can be wrapped in animal cross-breeding process?
If you didn’t know what crossbreeding is, you could read this article everything that you need to know about animal crossbreeding; crossbreeding was popular among the pet and farm animals such goat and sheep, cow, etc. Crossbreed do improved productions of dairy and live-stock – meat and milk of the animals. But, the crossbreeding also encompass the wild animals out there, and the pure example is liger. Liger was hybrid species of lion and tiger, which is innovated by some naturalist.
All the facts lead us to this essential question – if technology could wrapped the issues of human and plant, does technology can be wrapped in animal cross-breeding process? Let’s just find out.
Technologies for Sheep Breeding
From a long period of time, sheep become one of the importance lives-stock animal, also one of profitable contributor to farmers. New Zealand’s breeders had become the prefect example of a good track record in applying the technologies to assist breeding process to improve their stock’s genetic. Just as you know, there are current differences between modern-days sheep and their ancestral antecedents. The differences placed on the manipulation genetic which happened to the modern-day sheep.
Based by standardization which has been appointed by Robert Blakewell, the effort to improve the sheep must be admired as long as the method still run in the line of ethical standard. New Zealand new technologies breeding outcome with “improved sheep” which is proved increased the quality and quantity of productions, created the better productions neither meat and wool.
New Zealand’s New Technologies Track Record
- Composite Breeds
New Zealand’s breeders successfully created some composite breeds with significantly improved the entire industrial within New Zealand. The first breed that successfully created was The Corriedale in the 1800s. Followed the first example, in the 1900s arise several more breeds such Drysdale, Poll Dorset, Coopworth, Perendale, etc.
Sheep industry was the early adopter of computing estimation of breeding values from large datasets to assist their industry. Encouraging by Prof. Rae, in the 1960s to 1970s, in 1967 access to computer at Ruakura allowed the introduction of the National Flock Recording Scheme in Biometrics Section. In the 1980s the uptake of smaller desktop rapidly grew, while in that period computers only provided for education and organizations.
The New Technologies
- Selection differential: selection differential could only achieve by the application of artificial insemination (AI) especially used for situations of females hasn’t been observed regularly for detecting oestrus, which oestrus synchronization technologies would be needed.
- Variability: all the nucleus breeders increased genetic variation throughout the rate of gain. Also, tools such molecular genetic used to assist with the maintaining genetic diversity.
One of the example of the substantial computing power is in the design of individuals animals. Different mating plans needed in various breeding (staright-breeding) or crossbreeding – proved very useful in the New Zealand sheep industry.
Genetic Improvement of Crossbreed Cattle in the Tropics by Embryo Transfer Technology
Embryo transfer technology used in cattle to make valuable females increased the reproductive rates. Due to the low reproductive rates in this species embryo transfer technology proved helpful. Embryo transfer technology narrated the natural process of embryo’s growth and mollify both genetic and reproductive objectives concurrently.
The Benefits of Embryo Transfer Technologies
- Female’s Reproductive: Throughout this technology we could inseminate a superior cow with semen of superior bull to increase a chance of superior calf stock.
- Bull selection: embryo transfer technology also support the breeding bull production in an effective way.
- Germ plasm preservation: with embryo transfer technology, gene preservation of threaten species is possible. The species embryo would be collected and preserved under froze state (in large number).
- Biotechnology: embryo transfer technology as part of other biotechnology, is manipulating the embryo or oocytes in vitro – the success still depend on the quality of embryo transfer result; such other technologies which has been piloted: transgenic animal’s sexing production, In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), cloning by nuclear transplantation, bisection, etc.
Multiple Ovulation to Improve Genetic of Crossbreed Cattle
Nicholas and Smith in 1983, was coined the term of Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET) – related the technology to optimizing genetic improvement of cattle. Furthermore, to design genetically valuable animals accurately could be done by apply testing, pedigree analysis, and progeny testing – calculating the animal itself: e.g. rate and growth efficiency, calving difficulty’s degree, milk production, etc.
MOET basic principle is stimulated the growth of extensive follicular and ovulation by hormones and subsequent administration collection of embryo, then transfer it. The advantages of Moet are rapid availability of datas, low cost, and the ability to test a large number of animal in the population.
So, what about wild animal? Does this technology cover other animal’s cross breeding process? For now, experimental hasn’t been done yet. The wild animal apparently used the ‘manual’ and ‘natural’ ways with human intervention to help apply the crossbreed (mostly in conservation) – or, they just done it under unique circumstances in the wildlife.